What is macrophage cholesterol efflux?

The accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage foam cells results from the uptake of retained and modified apoB lipoproteins (1) and is a central event in atherogenesis. …

What is lipid efflux?

Since most peripheral cells do not catabolize cholesterol, efflux (extra-cellular transport) of cholesterol is vital for lipid homeostasis. Defective efflux contributes to atherosclerotic plaque development, impaired β-cell insulin secretion, and neuropathology.

How does reverse cholesterol transport work?

Reverse cholesterol transport is a mechanism by which the body removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and delivers them to the liver, where it will be redistributed to other tissues or removed from the body by the gallbladder. The main lipoprotein involved in this process is the HDL-c.

What are the factors that increase reverse cholesterol transport?

Facilitation of reverse cholesterol transport is important for estrogen’s potential preventive role. Estrogen acts to increase apolipoprotein (apo)-A1 and HDL particles, reduce hepatic lipase activity, decrease HDL uptake by hepatic SR-B1 scavenger receptors, and facilitate LDL clearance by hepatic LDL receptors.

What is cholesterol efflux capacity?

Serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is an important measure of HDL function in humans. Recent large clinical studies have shown a correlation between in vitro CEC and cardiovascular disease prevalence and incidence, which appears to be independent of HDL-C concentration.

What is cholesterol efflux?

Cholesterol efflux, a part of RCT, is a pathway transferring intracellular cholesterol from macrophages or other cells to extracellular acceptors such as apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) of high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

What removes cholesterol from circulation?

Soluble fiber can reduce the absorption of cholesterol into your bloodstream. Soluble fiber is found in such foods as oatmeal, kidney beans, Brussels sprouts, apples and pears. Add whey protein. Whey protein, which is found in dairy products, may account for many of the health benefits attributed to dairy.

How do I reverse cholesterol?

Below are 10 natural ways to improve your cholesterol levels.

  1. Focus on Monounsaturated Fats.
  2. Use Polyunsaturated Fats, Especially Omega-3s.
  3. Avoid Trans Fats.
  4. Eat Soluble Fiber.
  5. Exercise.
  6. Lose weight.
  7. Don’t smoke.
  8. Use alcohol in moderation.

What is the relationship of good cholesterol with cardiovascular disease?

HDL (high-density lipoprotein), or “good” cholesterol, absorbs cholesterol and carries it back to the liver. The liver then flushes it from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol can lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.

Which plays the largest role in reverse cholesterol transport?

HDL plays a critical role in reverse cholesterol transport, from peripheral tissues to the liver (Figure 6, Animated). The major lipoprotein components in HDL are ApoAI, ApoCII, and ApoE.

What is efflux capacity?

Which is involved in the cholesterol efflux pathway?

ATP binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) are important players of this protein family [ 5 ]. The cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1 and ABCG1 is mainly regulated by their upstream transcription factor, liver X receptor (LXR), which belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily [ 6 ].

How is p62 related to cholesterol efflux?

In conclusion, our experiments demonstrated that a p62/mTOR/LXRα signaling pathway was involved in cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1 and ABCG1 when autophagy blockage occurred. Our study offers a rationale for the development of autophagy and p62 as a new target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

How does liraglutide improve cholesterol efflux in cells?

In vitro study, liraglutide could promote the cholesterol efflux of HepG2 cells under high glucose, and also increase the expression of ABCA1 by activating the ERK1/2 pathway.

How are ABCA1 and ABCG1 related to cholesterol efflux?

Intracellular cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1 and ABCG1 helps to reduce lipid accumulation in foam cells. Related studies have shown that autophagy and mTOR are involved in cholesterol efflux, but the role of p62, an autophagy substrate protein, has not been evaluated.

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