What is a left-sided SVC?
A left-sided SVC forms when the left anterior cardinal vein is not obliterated during normal fetal development. The persistent left-sided SVC passes anterior to the left hilum and lateral to the aortic arch before rejoining the circulatory system.
Where does a left SVC drain?
This usually occurs in association with congenital heart disease, although it occurs rarely as an isolated abnormality associated with situs inversus. Typically, the left superior vena cava drains to the right atrium via the coronary sinus, but occasionally it drains directly into the left atrium.
What does persistent left superior vena cava mean?
Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is the most common congenital malformation of the thoracic venous return and is present in 0.3 to 0.5% of individuals in the general population with a normal heart, and 4.5% in individuals with congenital heart diseases.
What is the pressure in the superior vena cava?
Pressures in the superior and inferior vena cava were also correlated (r=0.764, p<0.05). With Pcyst > or = 15 mmHg, Pivc was lower than Pcyst (p<0.01). It correlated highly with Pcyst (r=0.85, p<0.01) and less strongly with Psvc (r=0.701, p<0.01).
What is double SVC?
Double SVC is a rare anatomical variant that results from a persistent left superior vena cava, which is due to the embryological failure of regression of the anterior cardinal vein.
Where is the SVC?
It descends vertically through the superior mediastinum, behind the intercostal spaces and to the right of the aorta and trachea. At the level of the second costal cartilage, the SVC enters the middle mediastinum and becomes surrounded by the fibrous pericardium.
Can you have 2 superior vena cava?
A double superior vena cava with a persistent left superior vena cava is rarely encountered but is the most common venous anomaly in the setting of SVC, with a frequency of between 0.3% and 1.3%, and it usually drains into the coronary sinus . Double SVC is usually asymptomatic unless other cardiac anomalies exist.
What is persistent LSVC?
Persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) is the commonest congenital anomaly of the thoracic venous system. It is within the group of anomalous systemic venous return (ASVR) and the group is subdivided in cephalic, involving the superior vena cava (SVC) and caudal, involving the inferior vena cava (IVC) types.
What are the signs and symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome?
Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) happens when the superior vena cava is partially blocked or compressed. Cancer is usually the main cause of SVCS….The most common symptoms of SVCS include:
- Swelling of your face, neck, upper body, and arms.
- Trouble breathing or shortness of breath.
What is the treatment for superior vena cava syndrome?
Although SVC syndrome is a clinical diagnosis, plain radiography, computed tomography (CT) and venography are used for confirmation (1). Recommended treatments for cancer-related SVC syndrome include chemotherapy and radiation to reduce the tumour that is causing the obstruction.
Can you have 2 vena cava?
Double inferior vena cava is a vein abnormality that is present from birth ( congenital ). Individuals with this anomaly have two inferior vena cavas instead of one. The inferior vena cava carries oxygen-poor blood from the lower parts of the body into the heart. Double inferior vena cava does not cause any symptoms.
Is there such a thing as left sided SVC?
A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. It is only seen in isolation in 10% of cases since the vast majority are accompanied by a normal right-sided SVC, termed SVC duplication.
What are persistent left superior vena cava ( lsvc )?
A persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) is a form of anomalous systemic venous drainage identified in 4.4% of children with CHD, most frequently those with septal defects.224 It represents a remnant of the left anterior cardinal vein that typically obliterates during development.
How does PLSVC affect the left side of the body?
According to the “obstructive theory” hypothesis, the presence of PLSVC, which may cause an increase in CS size, could lead to the formation of a left-sided obstructive lesion because of the space restriction [ 1 ]. PLSVC is responsible for approximately 20% of the total venous blood return from the left arm, left half of the head and neck.
When to be aware of differential diagnoses of PLSVC?
To be aware of the differential diagnoses of PLSVC is essential for correctly interpreting left-sided mediastinal vascular structures.