How do mitochondria work with ER?

Mitochondria are responsible for ATP production, maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis and regulation of apoptosis, while ER is involved in protein folding, lipid metabolism as well as Ca2+ homeostasis.

How is protein import into mitochondria different from import into the ER lumen?

Protein import into mitochondria is similar to import into the ER but is complicated by the presence of two membrane around mitochondria. Mitochondrial proteins can reside in the outer membrane, inner membrane, intermembrane space, or matrix (space inside inner membrane).

Which protein is present in mitochondria?

Protein ORF Null phenotype
Tim9 YEL020W-A Inviable
Tim10 YHR005C-A Inviable
Tim12 YBR091C Inviable
Tim13 YGR181W Viable, various defects

How do mitochondria and smooth ER work together?

The ER and mitochondria join together at multiple contact sites to form specific domains, termed mitochondria-ER associated membranes (MAMs), with distinct biochemical properties and a characteristic set of proteins.

Who does mitochondria work with?

The mitochondria, termed the “powerhouse” of the cell, works with other cellular organelles by providing them with the major form of energy know as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP allows other cellular organelles to function properly maintaing the integrity of the cell.

What tags a protein for import into mitochondria?

A signal sequence for mitochondrial protein import. Cytochrome oxidase is a large multiprotein complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it functions as the terminal enzyme in the electron-transport chain (discussed in Chapter 14).

What is the site of protein synthesis?

Ribosomes are the sites in a cell in which protein synthesis takes place.

How are IMS proteins imported into the mitochondrial system?

Many IMS proteins are imported by the Mitochondrial Intermembrane space import and Assembly (MIA) machinery, which couples sorting of client proteins to their oxidative folding through a disulfide relay mechanism.

How are mitochondrial proteins imported into the mitochondria?

Abstract Most mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus. They are synthesized as precursor forms in the cytosol and must be imported into mitochondria with the help of different protein translocases.

How are cxnc-rich proteins transported to the mitochondrial membrane?

Proteins of the IMS that contain cysteine-rich signals (CxnC) are imported via the mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly (MIA) pathway. Carrier proteins of the inner membrane (IM) are transported with the help of the small Tims and the translocase of the inner membrane 22 (TIM22 complex).

How is the mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system ( Minos ) linked?

The mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS) is transiently coupled to Mia40, TOM and SAM, linking protein import and mitochondrial membrane morphology. (c) α-Helical insertion (Mim1) pathway.

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